To the depths of the Ladakh lakes

May 1 2017
Tso Kar and Tso Moriri are among the world's highest lakes, lying as they do in the trans-Himalayan plateau. Using the OpenROV, we will map the beds of these two salty lakes and contribute to the scarce science around them. In addition, we will help raise aware regarding the conservation of the wetlands and rare wildlife that these lakes support. Read background

May 1 2017

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Name: Shashank Srinivasan
E-Mail: srinivasan.shashank@gmail.com
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Preparation Stage

The OpenROV has had her first dive, and thus she now has a name! I'm calling her Matsya, after the piscine avatar of the male god Vishnu; it is a 'her' though, since ships are always female.


She's had a difficult few days. First, her port motor started twitching due to a still-undiagnosed fault; since she needed to be in Goa in a few days for her first test dives, the motor was removed, and will be replaced in the near future. For now, she can move vertically and um, in circles.

She then missed her maiden flight to Goa, and stayed in Delhi in the suitcase with all my clothes. At first, we thought she'd been detained by security at the airport, since she's basically a plastic box with lots of wires, electronics and batteries, and doesn't exactly look airplane-friendly. However, it turned out to be a lot less complicated; Air India simply had forgotten to put her on the flight, and she arrived safely the next day i.e. yesterday.

I'd already dipped her into a bucket full of water in Delhi, as part of the waterproofing tests, which she passed successfully. In the process, she also took a very nice photo of my wife looking down at her. In Goa, after running through the pre-dive checklist, I took Matsya to the Our Lady of Snows church in Raia, on the banks of the Zuari river, where she had her first dive in the great outdoors. Once I'd set everything up, I waded into the river with her and pushed her into the current, and then let her drift while I monitored the cockpit feed.

I'm happy to report that everything went extremely well; Matsya actually saw some fish and moved vertically and circularly without springing a leak. There was a bit of jugaad required, which I'll detail in the OpenROV forums, but there's now a functioning OpenROV 2.8 in India!

Next up: more dives in Goa, including some in the open sea, and then we'll start working towards Ladakh.

P.S.: In my eagerness to deploy, I didn't follow the tether-spooling guidelines, so my task for the afternoon, after following the post-dive checklist, was to untangle 100m of double-stranded wire. It took me slightly over 4 hours, and while I've learnt my lesson, I must also admit that puzzling it out was a lot of fun.

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shashank 1 comment

Oh no! 4 hours! Glad to see it's in the water.

It's time for another, much-delayed update; in the last one, I talked about how I received and unpacked the OpenROV, and began putting it together. I used cyanoacrylate instead of acrylic cement to stick everything together, which worked well, and expected only a few more hours of work before the OpenROV was complete. What I hadn't bargained for was how much time it would take for me to identify and procure the correct type of epoxy for the various bits of electronic potting required.


Since I'm based in India, I wasn't able to get the epoxy, with mixing syringe, recommended in the OpenROV build. The epoxy I have used in the past (brandname: Araldite), primarily for woodworking purposes, is far too viscous to be pushed into the OpenROV's empty spaces, and I was bit lost as to how to proceed. I put the build on hold for a while, but continued looking for suitable epoxy resins. I contacted a few chemical suppliers in India, and while they claimed to have low-viscosity epoxies available, they were only willing to sell them in very high volumes. Finally, I found some clear-casting epoxy resin on Amazon India (name: MurtiSil - Easy Cast 33 - Transparent Epoxy Resin - 911133000750 - 750 Grams) which seemed to be what I was looking for. There wasn't much documentation available, but since the seller's description states that this epoxy has "very less viscosity like water", I decided to take a chance. I'm glad to say that this epoxy worked like a charm; it did flow like water, and I used a set of 20mm medical syringes to measure, mix and inject the epoxy into the OpenROV.

In the meantime, I also quit my day job at WWF-India to focus on using technology for wildlife (techforwildlife.com), and allocated 3 days of my first week off work towards OpenROV construction. While there were a few issues, I managed to work them out using the very helpful OpenROV forums, and In brief, I put the OpenROV together, put the batteries in and activated the device. And it worked!

At this point (30th January 2017), I have a nearly-complete OpenROV; the only task left is to ensure that the main electronics tube and the soldered connections are waterproof, and then we can begin our first test dives.

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shashank 2 comments

That's great news! Good sleuthing for alternative epoxy. Don't know if you have a good vacuum test unit, here's the one I use: mityvac mv8000.

Great news! And congrats on the new organization!

There's good news...actually, there's great news! Thanks to the OpenROV team and the Moore Foundation, I've been sent an OpenROV kit; it successfully navigated Indian customs and was delivered last month to me in New Delhi, India. If anyone else is trying to get an OpenROV kit delivered in India, feel free to get in touch if you need any advice.

The kit itself is in a lovely white box well-packed in bubble wrap. It took pride of place in my workshop/utility room, and I began the actual build yesterday. I wasn't able to find acrylic cement in Delhi, so I've been using cyanoacrylate instead. This means that the see-through acrylic of the endcaps isn't quite see-through anymore, but they seem waterproof. I've made one major mistake so far; I put the non-pass through endcap together the wrong way around, but managed to separate it using a sharp tool before the superglue bonded completely. However, in the process I managed to cut first my thumb and then my little finger (I was in a hurry to separate the layers; superglue bonds within 20 seconds) so there's now blood visible inside the endcap layers...maybe it'll help attract sharks.

Other than that, I'm really enjoying the build; once I get access to a soldering station and procure epoxy for the potting, it's only a few more hours till the OpenROV is ready for its first test!

shashank 2 comments

Great news! Can't wait to hear how the test goes!

Could you also post pictures of the ROV?

As requested in one of the comments, I've posted a photo of the area. I took this while climbing up one of the unnamed mountains on the rim of the Tso Kar lake basin. It was lovely summer day, and I managed to get to an altitude of ~20,000ft before I turned around. I made it back well after dark, having had to scramble down some scree, but the trek was worth it. I had a magnificent view of the lake and the scenery is spectacular. That's the lake we're going to be exploring with the OpenROV.

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shashank 5 comments

This is amazing! I can't wait to see more!

Wow. That's beautiful.

What a stunning landscape, thanks for sharing!

How's the build going??

The build is going well; I'm really excited! Everything looks right, and I'm about halfway through. A couple of mistakes along the way, which I've fixed. One of the consequences of the mistakes are that I have literally put blood into this build; you can see it in the transparent acrylic layers of the endcaps... Once I get access to a soldering station and procure epoxy, it's just a few more hours of work to a fully armed and operational OpenROV!

A year later, and this project is back on the radar; I've been working on drone policy in India and I'm hoping that circumstances have changed enough that I can get the OpenROV into the country by the end of the year. We're then going to go up to Ladakh in May 2017; fingers crossed!

shashank 0 comments

It's time for an update; six months down the line from the initial project post, I've met with guarded enthusiasm from everyone I've spoken to about this project. Enthusiastic, because they think it's a great idea, and guarded, because in this part of the world, red tape could be a serious issue, especially when using the words 'robot' and 'border area'. However, I've worked in Ladakh, Kashmir, before, and am familiar with the processes involved in getting permits for scientific research. In addition, the fact that I'm an Indian citizen will definitely help!

At this point of time, I'm working on getting other local stakeholders involved. I'm focusing on getting individuals and institutions with technical and/or regional expertise on board, and am also fleshing out the logistical details of the expedition.

Regarding the OpenROV itself, it was very kindly funded by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, but due to issues with FedEx and Indian Customs, the delivery was cancelled. However, I've been working out those issues, and hopefully, if and when the OpenROV is dispatched again it'll reach successfully.

shashank 1 comment

Excited to get rolling with this one! Do you have any photos from the area? I'm probably not alone in my curiosity about the landscape. Must be lovely!

Expedition Background

Diving to the beds of two of the world's highest lakes, we'll uncover their secrets and raise awareness about their importance for wetlands and wildlife.

shashank 5 comments

Whoa! What's the altitude?

This is so cool! I want to come!

Also, if you add a photo to the background post, it will show up on the homepage map!

Have you been given permission to bring this type of equipment in such a politically sensitive area? Love your idea, but I can see issues with red tape.

Thanks for the comments! Answering them in order: the lakes are at an approximate altitude of 4500m, and the average depth is around 30m. Some sources say that the maximum depth at Tso Moriri is ~80m, while others say it is 30m. This project will help answer that question definitively, for both lakes.

Re: permission, I've worked in this region before with GPS devices, and while red tape will definitely be an issue, I'm sure that it will not be an insurmountable barrier to this project.